State & Minority Nationalism

State nationalism is the concept that the state is the primary focus of loyalty for its citizens. In its extreme form, it echoes Mussolini's idea that 'everything in the State, nothing outside the State, nothing against the State'. There are various forms and manifestations of nationalism. Chauvinist nationalism involves the belief in the superiority of a specific nation, often tied to race, over others. Hitler's expansionist and racist vision for Nazi Germany exemplified this, leading to the tragedies of the Second World War and the Holocaust. Conservative nationalism, less extreme than chauvinist nationalism, emphasizes the traditional culture, values, and beliefs of a nation. It leans towards insularity and preservation of national culture. For instance, some French nationalists argue that French tradition prohibits Muslim women from wearing the full veil or headscarf in public institutions like state schools. Liberal nationalism is a more moderate approach, focusing on liberating a people from oppressive rulers and establishing a sovereign nation-state. It envisions a stable world with autonomous nation-states cooperating harmoniously.

Recent Developments in Nationalism 

Minority nationalism often stems from state nationalism, particularly the chauvinistic and conservative forms. State nationalism frequently involves the suppression of minority groups to establish a powerful nation-state, whether through military conquest, colonization, or rule imposition. Minority nationalism can manifest as non-violent political movements like those of Welsh and Scottish nationalist parties in Britain, or through violent means like guerrilla warfare or terrorism, exemplified by groups such as ETA in the Basque region or the Provisional IRA in Ireland. Surprisingly, minority nationalism can intersect with Marxism, despite Marxism's foundational internationalism and anti-nationalism. Many anti-colonial movements in Africa drew inspiration from political Marxism, portraying their adversaries as both imperialist and capitalist. Nationalism can influence a diverse range of political ideologies, from fascism to socialist revolutions to liberal democracy. 

2014 Independence Referendum Scotland