The enumerated powers
Enumerated powers (enumerated means numbered or listed) These are found in Article 1 of the constutution
Powers held by Congress
· Collection of taxes and duties, which provide for the debts of the United States, as well as for the common defence and welfare of the country.
· Borrowing money on behalf of the United States.
· Regulation of commerce, both on the international and interstate levels. This also includes Native American tribes.
· Establishing currency and coin money and fixing common weights and measures.
· Establishing post offices.
· Provision for and maintenance of an army and navy.
· Organising, training and arming a militia.
· Exclusive powers to legislative matters of the country.
· Establishing courts that are subordinate to the Supreme Court.
- Declaration of war.
· Amendment of the Constitution (shared with states).
· 16th amendment allows Congress to raise income tax.
· , A number of other powers are clearly laid out in the Constitution but are given to one of the two chambers only. e.g only the Senate approves presidential appointments to the executive and legislature.
Powers held by the president
· Heads the executive branch.
· Nominates cabinet members, ambassadors and the judiciary. (approved by the Senate)
· Proposes measures to Congress. Most importantly new laws 'by request'
. Vetoes legislation. (although the word veto is not used)
· Grants pardons.
Powers held by the Courts
· Rule on cases arising under the Constitution, the Laws of the United States, or Treaties. Note - no mention of Judicial Review!