Reshuffle Sept 2021 Boris wields the axe

Gavin Williamson's sacking as education secretary and Dominic Raab being moved from foreign secretary were the major headlines of Boris Johnson's reshuffle.

What factors and motives governed the changes?

Failure in the job .Gavin Williamson . The sacking of Education Secretary was highly predictable. He had faced regular criticism of his handling of the education brief during the COVID-19 crisis, including over the pandemic-enforced shutting of schools and a fiasco over the awarding of A-level and GCSE grades.

A week before his sacking week, Mr Williamson was widely mocked after he admitted to confusing England footballer Marcus Rashford with rugby star Maro Itoje.

Scandal, Mr Jenrick’s position has been precarious for some time since he was forced last year to admit that his decision to grant planning permission to a controversial development had been unlawful. The secretary of state for housing, communities and local government was responsible for a series of highly contentious planning decisions, not least his approval of the Westferry Printworks development in 2020 – despite it being heavily criticised by Tower Hamlets, the Greater London Authority (GLA) and the government’s own planning inspector.

His consent for the £1 billion scheme designed by PLP for billionaire Tory donor Richard Desmond was later quashed after the government admitted Jenrick’s decision was unlawful amid accusations of bias.

The minister was also criticised for his lack of action in addressing the ongoing issues with dangerous cladding in the wake of the Grenfell tragedy and the crisis has dragged on for years.

Tory backbenchers also hated his proposed planning reform which would make it easier to build houses which were unpopular with voters in Tory heartland in the south of England. While building houses is generally popular there location of these new homes is never popular.

Collateral damage: Robert Buckland had not done a bad job and no one predicted his sacking, but Johnson needed his job as compensation for Dominic Raab- in the end Buckland is no threat outside the cabinet whereas Raab could have been.

Getting ready for the next elction. She has been serving as a Minister without Portfolio in the UK Cabinet since February 2020, and alongside Ben Elliott as Co-Chairman of the Conservative Party. She was criticised over 'disastrous' by-election campaign tactics. Tory MPs wree said to be fuming (Daily Mail) over how the Conservatives apparently threw away a lead to Labour in the Batley & Spen by election.. That came just two weeks after being humiliated by the Liberal Democrats in the 'true-blue' Home Counties seat of Chesham and Amersham. One senior backbencher said: 'We can't have a situation, as we did in Batley, where we send the PM to a by-election campaign less than a week before polling day and then lose the bloody contest. It is simply not on.'..

Moved. Too dangerous to sack

His handling of the crisis in Afghanistan following the Taliban takeover was heavily criticised, particularly his decision to go on holiday - with other cabinet figures briefing heavily against him and opposition parties demanding he resign or be sacked.

Mr Raab has also officially become deputy prime minister, a role he de facto previously had as first secretary of state, a decision that is potentially designed to placate the now former foreign secretary. Robert Buckland was sacked to give him a role.

Promoted- for loyalty and not making mistakes in the past.

Moved from her role as international trade secretary to replace Raab as Foreign Sec while keeping her job as women and equalities minister.

Popular with party members, and seen as having been effective in her role negotiating post-Brexit trade agreements. A former justice and environment secretary under Theresa May, Ms Truss' appointment means she is the second-ever female foreign secretary, after Labour's Margaret Beckett under Tony Blair.

Moved. Long time rival of Johnson moved becoming housing, communities and local government secretary.

He also takes on cross-government responsibility for levelling up and keeps his ministerial responsibilities for the union and elections. Has reputation for not making mistakes and getting things don. Housing is seen as key to 'levelling up'- ie appealing to former Labour voters.