Keynesian economics proposes that governments should stimulate demand to promote economic growth. Advocates of this theory assert that consumer demand is the primary driver of economic activity. Consequently, Keynesian economics advocates for expansionary fiscal policies, utilizing tools such as government spending on infrastructure, unemployment benefits, and education. Renowned economist John Maynard Keynes, a liberal thinker, formulated this theory in the 1930s amidst the backdrop of the Great Depression, which had proven resistant to previous solutions. President Franklin D. Roosevelt implemented Keynesian principles as part of his transformative New Deal program. Within his first 100 days in office, FDR increased the national debt by $3 billion to establish 15 new agencies and laws. Notably, initiatives like the Works Progress Administration employed 8.5 million individuals, while the Civil Works Administration created 4 million construction jobs. Keynesian ideas became integral to the economic policies of both the Labour Party and the Conservatives until the 1980s, shaping the 'Post-War Consensus' in the UK between 1945 and 1979. Keynes articulated his theories in "The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money," a groundbreaking work published in February 1936. The book posited that government spending played a crucial role in driving aggregate demand, suggesting that increased spending would bolster demand. As a progressive liberal, Keynes believed that government intervention was essential in mitigating economic downturns, given his view that free market capitalism could not independently ensure short-lived recessions. Understanding the disproportionate impact of economic crises on marginalized populations, Keynes endorsed policies aimed at guaranteeing their freedom from unemployment and poverty.

 Keynes argued that government spending was necessary to maintain full employment this dominated government economic policy until the Thatcher government challenged this view