To ensure that taxes are approved, the Constitution grants Congress the authority to manage government finances. Only Congress can generate income for the federal government. Tax proposals must originate in the House, but the Senate can make changes. Approval from both chambers is necessary for a bill to become law. Government shutdowns occur when the executive and Congress cannot reach a compromise and fail to pass a budget. Most shutdowns are limited and resolve quickly, despite causing minor disruptions due to funding gaps. During a complete shutdown, non-essential federal services like benefit requests, environmental and food safety inspections, and national park access are halted, leading to employee furloughs. Complete shutdowns are highly unpopular due to the inconveniences they create. The 35-day shutdown in 2018-2019 under Trump's administration was the longest in US history. To avoid shutdowns, Congress often adopts temporary "continuing resolutions" for interim funding while negotiating budgets with the president. The executive branch may need to concede to Congress to prevent a federal shutdown. In 2019, Trump discovered a unique method to circumvent Congress's control over government spending by invoking a national emergency to access emergency federal funds for his border wall.

Executive Orders