Primordialism :The organic nation

Human nature: there is a range of views in how nationalists view human nature. A common one is that human nature is reflected as an instinct and humans naturally wish to be united around common themes. Liberal nationalists see humans as rational individuals who will make choices out of free will. 

liberal nationalism is based firmly upon a rational mindset. Liberal nationalism assumes that warfare and economic protectionism is contrary to the national interest. Instead, nations understand the need to maintain dialogue, peaceful co-existence, and trading links with other countries. We also fully recognise the need to respect our neighbours’ borders and foster a sense of international cooperation. Taken together, this provides the basis for a stable world order. Conservative nationalism is also based upon a shared sense of common interest. However, the assumptions behind conservative nationalism do not belong within the rationalist mindset. Conservatives believe that a nation emerges on an organic basis rather than rational calculations.

Other strands of nationalism reject the rational view. They contend that nations are locked into a Darwinian struggle for survival in which only the strong survive and the weak go to the wall. Nations therefore have no choice but to compete with others over scarce resources. People are driven by their emotions and a primordial desire to preserve their gene pool

Nationalists may have differing views on what defines a nation, but they are united in their belief that nations are natural communities. They argue that humankind is inherently divided into distinct nations, each with its own unique character and identity. Nationalists claim that loyalty to the nation holds greater significance than loyalty to any other social group. While factors like class, gender, religion, and language may be important in specific contexts, national bonds are considered more essential. National ties and loyalties are universal, enduring, and operate at an instinctual level. Various theories, such as primordialism, modernism, and constructivism, have been proposed to explain this phenomenon. Primordialist views on nationalism suggest that national identity is deeply rooted in a shared cultural heritage and language that existed long before the formation of states or quests for independence. All nationalists, in a way, adhere to primordialism. Anthony Smith emphasized the significance of primordialism by highlighting the link between modern nations and pre-modern ethnic communities known as "ethnies". He argued that nationalism draws upon the existing history of a group to create a sense of shared identity, even if this history is not entirely accurate. Smith contended that many nationalistic interpretations of history are fabricated to justify contemporary political and ethnic stances. Nationalistic narratives of sacrifice, victories, or defeats are often invoked to legitimize present-day decisions. According to Smith, nationalism does not require all members of a nation to be identical, but rather to feel a strong sense of solidarity with their nation and fellow citizens. These myths, memories, symbols, and values can predate the modern world, forming the basis of the ethno-symbolic approach to understanding the origins of nations.